If you are coming from a different programming language you are probably familiar to the concept of constants already. A constant is just like a variable except for the fact that its value does not change during the execution of your script.
This makes sense in scripts for which you have to define the total amount of months in a year for example. This is a number that is not likely to change anytime soon.
As you might have noticed the
TOTAL_MONTHS constant is written in all caps, this is actually just a convention and nothing prevents you from changing its value. Using all caps does not enforce a readonly value in bash so if you would like to change
11 you are free to do so:
$ TOTAL_MONTHS="12" $ echo $TOTAL_MONTHS 12 $ TOTAL_MONTHS="11" $ echo $TOTAL_MONTHS 11
Your shell doesn’t complain at all about this as you see.
This all caps convention is consistent with how environment variables and shell variables are defined. An example of an environment variable would be
Enforcing read only values
If you need to enforce a readonly value you may do so by using the
readonly commands. These two commands work very similar but differ in the default scope for which the variables are available. The
readonly command defaults to a global scope where
declare uses a local scope by default.
The following snippet illustrates what happens when you try to reassign a readonly variable.
$ declare -r TOTAL_MONTHS="12" $ echo $TOTAL_MONTHS 12 $ declare -r TOTAL_MONTHS="11" bash: declare: TOTAL_MONTHS: readonly variable